Describe LAN Topology

Posted by Arafat | 10:51 PM | , , , , , | 0 comments »

Here a small description of LAN Topology. There is basically 3 type of LAN Topology(discussed in IGNOU syllabus). These are i. STAR, ii. RING, iii. BUS (iv. TREE not in IGNOU syllabus).

i. STAR:- In the star LAN topology, each station is directly connected to a common central node. Typically, each station attaches to a central node, referred to as the star coupler, via two point-to-point links, one for transmission and one for reception. In general, there are two alternatives for the operation of the central node. One approach is for the central node to operate in a broadcast fashion.

A transmission of a frame from one station to the node is retransmitted on all of the outgoing links. In this case, although the arrangement is physically a star, it is logically a bus; a transmission from any station is received by all other stations, and only one station at a time may successfully transmit. Another approach is for the central node to act as a frame switching device. An incoming frame is buffered in the node and then retransmitted on an outgoing link to the destination station.

ii. RING:- In the ring topology, the network consists of a set of repeaters joined by point-topoint links in a closed loop. The repeater is a comparatively simple device, capable of receiving data on one link and transmitting them, bit by bit, on the other link as fast as they are received, with no buffering at the repeater. The links are unidirectional; that is, data are transmitted in one direction only and all are oriented in the same way. Thus, data circulate around the ring in one direction (clockwise or counterclockwise).

Each station attaches to the network at a repeater and can transmit data onto the network through that repeater. As with the bus and tree, data are transmitted in frames. As a frame circulates past all the other stations, the destination station recognizes its address and copies the frame into a local buffer as it goes by. The frame continues to circulate until it returns to the source station, where it is removed. Because multiple stations share the ring, medium access control is needed to determine at what time each station may insert frames.

iii. BUS:-Bus topology uses a common backbone to connect all the network devices in a network in a linear shape. A single cable functions as the shared communication medium for all the devices attached with this cable with an interface connector.

The device, which wants to communicate send the broadcast message to all the devices attached with the shared cable but only the intended recipient actually accepts and process that message.

iv. TREE:-The tree topology is a generalization of the bus topology. The transmission medium is a branching cable with no closed loops. The tree layout begins at a point known as the headend, where one or more cables start, and each of these may have branches.

The branches in turn may have additional branches to allow quite complex layouts. Again, a transmission from any station propagates throughout the medium and can be received by all other stations. Two problems present themselves in this arrangement. First, because a transmission from any one station can be received by all other stations, there needs to be some way of indicating for whom the transmission is intended. Second, a mechanism is needed to regulate transmission.

Hope this small description help you to create your note on LAN Topology.


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